An ABSTRACT is a mini-paper and is a summary of the major paper. It should give the reader a clear idea about the content of the paper but not theoretical or experimental details. It capsulizes the paper: states the problem and gives the solution in no more than 250 words. Feel free to use the link, Breakthrough of the Year , as a source for your abstract.

An ABSTRACT contains:

1) principal objectives and scope of the investigation

2) description of the methodology

3) summary of results

4) principal conclusions.

The following contain useful information on abstracts:

1) Edwart T. Cremmins, The Art of Abstracting, ISI Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1982. (CSUDH lib. PE 1477 C7 1982)

2) Robert A. Day, How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper, 1st and 2nd editions, ISI Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1970, 1986.

Day advises, abstracts:

1) identify the basic content of a document quickly and accurately.

2) do not include experimental detail.

3) do not cite references to the literature.

4) omit all references to previous work.

5) should contain no figures, diagrams or data tables.

6) avoid lengthy exposition of detailed theory.

7) do not give any information or conclusion that is not stated in the paper.